A lot of the economical impacts of GM crops can be seen in 3rd world countries where a large proportion of agriculture is performed by smallholding farms (small farms run predominantly with family labour). There have been several studies showing that the use of GM technologies on such farms can produce benefits just like those mentioned above under food security. However, some of these studies have also shown that when these benefits are experienced they correlate with an improved income and standard of living for the family running the farm. Though this correlation must be taken lightly at the moment. This is because at the moment he majority of GM crops being grown are non food cash crops such as cotton. Thus whilst the farmers may be making a higher income from the use of GM crops there have not yet been enough studies to prove that this relates to them receiving more nutrition.
Whilst there are studies supporting the belief that GM crops will help improve the nutritional lives and economically benefit the farmers in smallholdings. There is general consensus that we are not yet at the stage where GM crops are considered the solution to malnutrition or to improve living standards for the farmers yet there is optimism for the future.